Pike and Eugene A. Nida with certain modifications. These modifications are in the direction of easier teaching that is, of eliminating inconsistencies in sound-symbol association , or they may be easier to produce on a typewriter or easier to use in some other way. The phonetic theory which lies behind this Manual is de-rived directly and almost completely from Kenneth L. It uses what Pike calls the imitation-label technique to a large degreej it strives to help students produce a variety of sounds and gives them information about the mechanics of articulation so that they learn to make an association between what they hear and what they do.
It introduces the sound types in a ped-agogical progression which is based on their articulations rath-er than on their occurrence in any language. The phonetics of-fered, therefore, is general rather than related to any partic-ular language. However, in the Manual and in the recordings which accompany it, there are exercises drawn from actual lan-guages, and most of these exercises are recorded by native speakers of those languages.
In each such case the purpose is not to teach anything about that particular language but simply to illustrate realistically the sounds under study. We keep phonetic terminology to a minimum. We use that terminology usually following Pike which we find necessary for talking with students about articulations which they are being taught to make. The terminology which is introduced in the beginning is extensively drilled in the first lesson, be-cause it comes in a proportionately larger amount at that time than at later points in the course.
Manual of Articulatory Phonetics /
After the first lesson terminology is introduced more gradually and is not drilled as extensively, although at certain points, such as at the intro-duction of vowels, there is some drill on the new terminology needed. For his principal work on phonetics see Kenneth L. Pike, Phonetics. For full information on works cited in this Manual see the Bibliography. At a few points the terminology does differ from that used by Pike, largely for pedagogical reasons. An example is the labeling of the various tongue heights of vowels as in Lesson lU The system used herel has been found much easier to teach than the more usual system of rating vowels as "close" or "open.
That is, the drill sessions follow the progression of the Manual, introducing the new material covered in the new lesson. Phonotactics I with language identifier. Phonotactics II: Syllable structure. Phonotactics III with rhyming dictionary. Phonotactics IV: Practice Exercises Phonotactics V: Exceptions and odd syllable types with PC desktop dictionary. The sounds and allophones of Taiwan English I. The sounds and allophones of Taiwan English II with allophone-writing exercise Foreign accents and national EFL dialects with links to audio file databases How fast do you read English?
Schwa elision in English Prices are subject t o change without no t i ce. Manual of Articulatory Phonetics. OO Thirty-three phonetics lessons, plus two chapters on the phonemic transcription of English consonants and vowels. In addition to the tape recordings described on the previous page, two other aids to the student and teacher have been prepared and integrated with the Manual.
Suggestions for the classroom use of different kinds of exercises in the Manual, efficient handling of the phonetics drill section, lesson plans for each of the lessons. The Manual of Articulatory Phonetics has been designed for courses in practical phonetics for beginning students.
To that end one of the goals of this course is to sharpen the student's hearing of sounds which may be exotic and strange to him, and to make him conscious of sounds which he may use constantly in his own speech, but of which he is unaware. A second goal is the development of a flexibility of the speech apparatus such that the student can control the various parts of the mouth and throat which are used in pronunciation.
He can learn to manipulate them and produce combinations of movement which he does not use in his own speech but which are necessary for other languages.
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Anoth-er goal is the development of the skill of mimicry. This is the skill of being able to reproduce quickly and accurately a sound, a word, a sentence, in a language which the student is in the process of learning. A lesser goal for the language learner but not any less for the linguist and one which is involved in the reaching of the previous goals, is the development of a sound-symbol asso-ciation.
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This means the ability to correlate a given segment of sound in a stream of speech with some symbol which is con-sistently used to represent it on paper. English spelling habits are such that many speakers of English are not conditioned to a sound-symbol association of high consistency.
Both of these courses are designed to introduce prospective missionaries to some of the techniques and skills of learning a language on the field. As such they place a heavy emphasis upon practical general phonetics.
This Manual provides a skel-eton of material on which the phonetics drill sessions are built. Although this Manual is prepared with a specific teach-ing situation in mind, iti should be useful in other phonetics courses as well. There is nothing in it but what is adaptable to any course in general phonetics, whether for embryo linguists, language teachers, or any other group.